The B-STA-R dataset provides information on more than 1138 bilateral agreements on cooperation in matters of science and technology, mostly concluded by countries of the G20 and OECD in the period between 1937 and 2020. These science and technology agreements (STA) are intergovernmental treaties in which the participating countries establish a framework for bilateral cooperation in science and technology (S&T). The files associated with the dataset contain information on the concluding countries, dates of signing, and entry into force. Moreover, links to the full texts of the agreements are provided where possible. B-STA-R is meant to inform studies from the social sciences and humanities that deal with the topic of international science policy, science diplomacy, innovation studies, foreign policy analysis, history of S&T, globalization and diffusion studies, etc.